Winter Sunlight

Writing wilderness survival/action stories

Heh, so, neenaroo on Tumblr asked me if I have any tips for writing wilderness survival stories, and I completely overran the ask box and basically wrote a NOVEL about it (apparently I do!).

This is also posted on Tumblr.

I feel a little weird giving advice because I'm not really an expert on any part of this, including the writing part; I'm just a person who really loves stranding characters in the wilderness and having horrible things happen to them. :D On the other hand, I've written quite a few of these by now, so I guess I've sort of got a system.

Stories which are referenced below:
Running on Empty (SGA) (website link)
The Killing Frost (SGA) (website link)
Survivor (White Collar)
Black Water Rising (MCU)
Wing and a Prayer (MCU)


First of all, I really love wilderness survival stories and action stuff, so I read a lot of it. How-to articles, fiction, and real-life survival stories are all really useful in giving you a lot of material to draw upon. You never know when a random detail from a book you read will end up being the perfect detail for a story you're writing.

The very best all-around survival research guide I own (that I use in almost everything of this sort that I write) is the U.S. Army Survival Handbook. This is the book I quoted from in Running on Empty. You don't need to buy any books, though, if you don't want to. You can just use the Internet. Googling "how to find water in the desert" or "wilderness navigation" or whatever else you want to know about will get you lots of useful info.

You also want to think about what your character would plausibly know, and what they wouldn't. A lot of the characters I write are military or otherwise skilled in navigation and survival. This obviously means doing quite a bit of research in order to make them behave plausibly. In Survivor, on the other hand, Elizabeth Burke from White Collar is stranded in the wilderness, and she's an urban housewife with no survival skills at all. Actually, one of the more challenging parts of THAT story was the fact that she actually knew a lot less about it than I did (... mostly because of writing stories like this) so I had to remember to have her doing things like having difficulty finding her way around in the woods, and basically not being a wilderness survival virtuoso.

So, paradoxically, sometimes writing a character who is very inexperienced can be hard, too, since you have to always keep in mind that they don't know how to do much. You might have to make things easier for them by giving them other advantages so they don't just drop dead immediately of heatstroke, snakebite, exposure, or whatever, as opposed to someone who is a wilderness survival badass and can survive almost anywhere with just a knife and some string. Your character's capabilities will partly determine what sort of advantages you have to give them in order to give them a reasonable shot at survival.

The choice of what to give your character at the beginning will obviously have a big effect on the outcome later. (Do they get stranded with a whole boatload of survival gear, or just the contents of their pockets?) If you realize as you write that your whole plot would be a heck of a lot easier if they had something they don't (a compass, a knife, something to carry water in) you can always go back and add it -- I do quite a bit of this -- or find a way to give it to them later on. I think perhaps the thing that causes me the most headaches when I'm writing survival stories is coming up with something plausible for them to carry water in, if they don't have a canteen to begin with. In Running on Empty I cheated by having Sheppard find a container in an old farmhouse he was rummaging around in. I do a lot of that kind of "cheating", as I'll get to a bit later.

Something that might not be obvious at first (I know it took me a long time to start thinking analytically about this - actually, some aspects of this I didn't notice I was doing 'til writing this post) is that it's very important to think about pacing and tension in a story like this. It's really easy to end up with a survival story that feels repetitive, with tension that doesn't really go anywhere, because the character's situation is basically pretty simple, there aren't a lot of other people to interact with, and the stakes at the START of the story are usually something like "TRY NOT TO DIE", which is about as high as stakes can get, so how do you keep raising them as the story goes along?

(Side note on dramatic pacing: usually action stories start off pretty low-key, and then get increasingly more tense and action-filled and dangerous as they go along, ending up in the most tense and action-filled place of all. That's how you hold a reader's interest, with that constantly escalating spiral of tension. So if you start out with "OH GOD WE'RE ALL GOING TO DIE" it's difficult to keep raising the level of tension all the way to the end. But survival stories are like that by nature, so what do you do?)

Well, ha, here's how I do it.

In most of my stories, the characters' physical condition deteriorates throughout the story, while the amount of difficulty they have obtaining whatever they need to survive increases.

At the start, they may be lost and scared and hunted, but they're (usually) healthy, well fed, and probably have some gear with them. As the story goes along, they start racking up physical damage (they get shot, they break bones, their injuries get infected), and they also start losing things they started out with (they run out of ammo, they eat the last of their food, etc).

It is REALLY useful at ramping up the tension to do some kind of equipment inventory at the beginning (it's logical for the characters to do this themselves anyway, since they want to know what they have to work with). As they run low on stuff, and then run out of it, the level of tension cranks tighter and tighter. For example, if they have three granola bars at the start of the story, you can gracefully work in a mention of how much they have left (and make the reader anxious about their continued survival) if the character makes themselves wait until they're desperately hungry to eat the first one, because now they only have two left! Or they might break one in half and eat a piece of it, forcing themselves to save the rest...

And take every opportunity to deprive them of stuff, preferably one or two pieces at a time. Maybe they get caught in a swamp and lose their boots, or they have to use up all their rope making a trap. If there's ammo involved, it's tenser if they use it over the course of a few different firefights, and start carefully hoarding their bullets towards the end, than if they use it all at once in one big firefight at the beginning. Remember, it's all about making the reader breathless with anticipation over how they're going to get out of this. As their situation gets subtly worse, the reader's anxiety gets ratcheted up.

The other thing that's tricky, as mentioned above, is not getting repetitive, because so much of what happens to them in the story is going to be basically the same due to their basic needs and enemies not really changing a whole lot over the course of the story. (What, we have to find water AGAIN?!) In some of my stories, I will actually make a list beforehand of all the things that could plausibly happen to them, and make sure to use each item on the list ONLY ONCE. Especially something really dramatic like a flood or a forest fire (or the whole hillside getting blown up in Wing and a Prayer) -- that's the sort of thing that is so memorable you don't want to do it twice. But you also want to be a bit careful at repeating simpler activities, because you can easily end up with a lot of very similar scenes of obtaining food, water, etc. that get dull and repetitive over time. You could show the character hunting a deer with their improvised weapons in a lot of detail the first time, but you wouldn't want to have another detailed deer-hunting scene. (Unless you do another tension-ramping thing with it: the first time they miss totally, then a little later they stalk another deer and almost kill it, and the third time they're totally out of food and getting desperate and they lose their last arrow and then they try to jump on the deer and break its neck ...)

You get the idea. :D A lot of times I'll have no choice but to use a similar scenario multiple times, so I'll try to stage it differently so it's not the same. One relatively easy and effective way of doing this is to make both the situation and the outcome worse on each iteration. Like, the first time the characters might get ambushed by one or two guys, and beat them easily. The second time, they are stalked by a larger group of more experienced goons, and this time they barely get away and somebody gets hurt in the fight. The third time, they are PROBABLY going to die because they're down to their last 3 bullets, but the fight is interrupted when it's just gotten started by a sudden flash flood (which you would of course have set up earlier by ominous oncoming rain clouds). Or maybe, for "goons", substitute "large predators" if they're only up against normal wilderness hazards. That kind of thing.

Changing up the characters' environment and the weather are two other ways of keeping things fresh. For example, your characters can start out on the beach and move into the woods and then into the mountains -- this gives you new environments for them to explore, new sources of food and water, and new challenges. Rainstorms and other kinds of severe weather are quite useful as well. :D

The simpler their situation is and the fewer advantages they have, the harder it is to keep things from becoming stale. Black Water Rising, while not a wilderness survival story as such, is an EXCELLENT example of a story where I used the "make a list of all possible things that could happen" technique for plotting, because I had trapped the characters in an empty, abandoned, and sealed underground complex with rising water levels and no advantages except what they had brought with them. I could see right off that I was going to end up with a lot of very similar scenes of characters wandering into dead-end passageways, facing similar hazards (almost drowning) or trying similar methods of escape (chipping through walls, climbing things). So I made two lists: one list of bad things that could possibly happen to them (someone almost drowns, they lose their flashlights, someone falls out of touch with the others, they start getting hypothermic, etc) and another list of useful things or possible escape routes they might find, and then merged the two and figured out how to spread it all out so no one gets into the same kind of scrape twice in a row and I won't be repeating similar "discovering a possible escape route" scenes.

This brings up the OTHER useful way of breaking up repetition and raising tension: as well as making things worse for them, and taking things away, I'll also come up with ways of giving the characters new advantages as they go along. It's what I was talking about earlier with giving Sheppard a canteen from the abandoned cabin, since he didn't have one to begin with. In Wing and a Prayer, the characters stumble upon an enemy base and now they can (potentially) get food and water and medicine, if they can steal it without getting caught. In Running on Empty, I had the characters raid abandoned villages a time or two, and then they started making gunpowder, and eventually they end up capturing an enemy spaceship. Why not just leave them with the same things they started with? Well, it opens up new avenues of story to give them new things ... and also, they have to win SOMEHOW. If you make their situation too desperate and then don't give them some relief occasionally, that can be as much of a slog as if you make it too easy.

But you want them to earn things. If you are going to give them a present (like a cabin in the woods, or a crashed alien spaceship they can get tech from) you should either have them earn it somehow (they cleverly navigate through the wilderness, and decide to follow a river because usually people build along waterways, and then they find a cabin!) or the "gift" actually raises a whole bunch of new problems, like the Hydra base that Sam and Bucky found in Wing and a Prayer -- they have a source of weapons and food and medicine, but they also have to sneak or fight their way through it in order to get any of that stuff.

Often if you find yourself stuck in the story, you need to throw a curve ball at the characters, which can either be some new terrible thing (flash flood!), or, frequently and perhaps a bit paradoxically, a new development to make things easier for them for a little while. If they've been slogging through the wilderness forever, having them meet a fellow traveller or find a cabin or a vehicle gives you a bunch of new scenes to write, as they figure out how to take advantage of New!Thing and deal with whatever challenges have come along with it. If it really comes out of nowhere, you can always go back and add a bit of foreshadowing earlier in the story to imply that such a thing might be around here somewhere. (Maybe they find some cigarette butts and realize there is someone else in the woods with them, so now they have to figure out whether this person is more likely to be helpful or dangerous, and whether they should look for them or hide from them ...)

I will straight-up admit that a lot of the new advantages I give my characters are simply because I had no idea what to do next -- I either found myself facing a whole lot of boring and repetitive nothing (which was the case in Wing and a Prayer; HELL NO I don't want to write a week-long trek through the wilderness to civilization, with Hydra showing up occasionally to shoot at them) or I realize I've written them into a situation that they couldn't possibly survive without help (which is why the cavalry shows up halfway through The Killing Frost rather than at the end, and the focus of the story switches from flat-out survival to search & rescue for their missing team members, because EVERYONE IS FREEZING TO DEATH and soon will all be dead if something doesn't change).

I think this might be the least intuitive aspect of writing wilderness survival stuff, and the hardest to learn how to do well -- half the trick to it is properly spacing out the major developments and incidents so you don't have a bunch of stuff clustering at the beginning and save some of your big stuff for later on (which is where making a list comes so much in handy), and the other half of the trick is cleverly giving them stuff and taking stuff away without having it feel contrived or ridiculous, so it ends up being more compelling than simply a bunch of people tramping through the wilderness slowly starving to death.

If you look analytically at wilderness survival stories (the fictional kind; real life does not have the decency to be this well organized) you'll start noticing how much of the plotting actually involves giving the characters new stuff to take advantage of, or otherwise changing the status quo of the story as soon as it's established. Robinson Crusoe is sort of the ur-example of this, because he doesn't just spend the whole book on an island with literally nothing -- he has a whole shipwreck to raid, so half the time he's finding new stuff from the shipwreck, and then when that gets stale, some people turn up and he gets to interact with them.

You don't absolutely have to do this. The book The Valley of Horses (one of the semi-infamous Clan of the Cave Bear series, and far and away my favorite of the series when I was a kid), at least the first half of it, involves the heroine all alone in the wilderness, making all the stuff she needs to survive. (She does run into another person halfway through, and the rest of the book is about getting to know each other.) But the first half is just Woman vs. Wilderness. Even there, though, the writer throws occasional curveballs at her to keep things interesting, such as a flood or an orphaned wolf cub she adopts.

So, a summary, in bullet points:
  • Research
  • Think about what your character plausibly knows and would have with them
  • Do some kind of equipment inventory near the beginning so both the reader and your characters know what they have with them
  • Keep making things slowly but steadily worse to increase tension (they lose stuff, they get hurt, more enemies arrive, the weather worsens, etc)
  • Space out important events (make a list of possibilities if necessary) and save some of the worst stuff for last
  • Throw curve balls at the characters every time a status quo starts to be established (rainstorm! lion! rocks fall, everyone dies!)
  • Give them new stuff or new people whenever things start getting repetitive and/or you accidentally write them into a "but they could not possibly survive this" corner, but make them earn it and/or give it a major downside to make things more interesting.


And remember rules are made to be broken, and not all stories will have or need all of the above. :D

This entry is also posted at http://sholio.dreamwidth.org/1023929.html with comment count unavailable comments.
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Noting this for possible future reference.

Have you watched any of the survival tv shows that are popular now?
I have not! For various reasons, that kind of thing is really, really not my thing in live action, as much as I adore ~true stories of survival~ in book form.
wilderness survival stuff
I've been thinking a lot about this post since my well-documented love of H/C makes me think I should try writing some of it myself. Your writing posts are very inspiring! :) And I was just curious... how do you "start". What I mean is, okay, let's say you have done your research into plausible survival scenarios. Let's say you have a list of things that can and will go wrong, or mitigating "helpful" things. Do you just go "I'm gonna plonk them down in the middle of the forest and see what happens?" or do you have some kind of a theme, or a sign-post scene around which you build these stories? I'm sure not every story is the same, but I'm curious if you've found some general way to go about it since you're far faaaar more experienced in this then I.

I am thinking of a couple of survival scenarios, but I'm having trouble wrapping my head around the "why are they in the wilderness in the first place" part. (This isn't SGA where you can plonk them down on a new planet, nor is it superheroes/secret agents kind of deal where they'd have to keep the mission secret). Basically, I'm having a tough time thinking of a reason that the confluence of factors would lead them to have all of the following setup: no cell phone to call for help + middle of nowhere + no way to hike to the nearest habitable place. My solution to this so far has been to imagine a reason for them to be far north in Canada, where as I've hiked there myself, I know that you can walk for days and not encounter anyone. But if I wanted to set this story in the USA, do you know if there's a good place (other than Alaska, ha ha) to send a bunch of people on a survival trek? (This is so much easier with different planets! *g*)

No need to answer if you're busy, I was just wondering. :)
Re: wilderness survival stuff
Different stories ARE different, but usually it's just "plonk them down in the woods and see what happens". XD Well, no, actually it very often goes more like this:

*plonk down in woods, start writing*
*realize 5K or 10K or 15K later that I am rapidly writing myself into a corner and need to do some planning*
*do all the planning I should have done at the beginning*

Heh. This is usually the point at which I do stuff like make lists of major incidents and injuries so I can spread things out properly, or figure out in detail how I'm going to escalate the bad guy's attacks, and that kind of stuff.

However, I usually start off with a general idea of some of the major things that are going to happen along the way. I don't necessarily know how the story ends or how they get out (although I might) but I've generally got ideas for a few of the big things that happen to them, so while I'm writing, I work towards those things. It might be a major thing, like a big h/c scene, or it might be something small like a vivid mental image of a mountaineer's cottage that they find and spend the night in during a rainstorm. That kind of thing. When I'm thinking about the story beforehand, I brainstorm a bunch of random stuff, and I start writing with my favorite scenes in mind.

So ... it's a combination, I guess? I don't think I'd go so far as to say that I have a signpost scene or theme, but most of my long stories DID have a couple of central scenes that I knew I was building towards, usually something dramatic or emotional. I also think the idea of building a story around a lynchpin scene is a very good one, even if you end up having to change the scene a lot when you get there because the story itself has changed along the way. All my stories are a little different, so it's definitely worth trying different things 'til you find out what works for you.

/is probably not helpful

And yeah, stranding people on Earth, especially in more populated parts of the world is very hard, especially with frikkin' cell phones. (Use Alaska! We have lots of wilderness! I will be happy to help out as a technical consultant! XD) There ARE a few places in the contiguous U.S. that are wild enough, I think:

- the northern parts of New York State or Maine
- northern Minnesota
- extremely mountainous areas in Colorado, Wyoming, or Montana, i.e. somewhere along the Rocky Mountains in the central part of the country
- any large national park or wilderness preserve
- if you don't mind writing them in a desert, the desert southwest (Arizona/New Mexico) is actually notorious for people getting lost and getting into trouble.

Anywhere that borders Canada, they could accidentally cross over and wander in Canada. Obviously you aren't SUPPOSED to, but the border doesn't have a fence, and the only designated border crossings are at towns or major roads. On the eastern side, southern Canada is very settled. Although New York and Maine are pretty wild in the northern parts (mostly it's all national parks up there), once you cross the border, it suddenly turns into farmland. However, as you go west, it gets wilder and wilder -- like, you could probably wander from northern Montana or Washington into Canada and keep going for a long time.

If I were going to do it, I think I'd go for northern New York -- there is actually quite a lot of woods, and yet it's reasonably close to major population centers, hence reasons to be in the area -- or some vague part of the northern Rocky Mountains that is never exactly specified. Or send them off to Canada on a paper-thin pretext. XD

When I was writing White Collar, I stranded characters in the woods a couple of times by having them escape from bad guys who had confiscated their cell phones, or else losing their phones while escaping. *handwave, handwave*

I hope this is helpful - just ask if you have more questions. :D

Edited at 2015-08-29 07:28 am (UTC)
Re: wilderness survival stuff
Thanks so much for a thorough and fast response. :)

It's very relieving to hear that even people like you who write a lot of these don't always know how everything will play out before you start.

Yes, New York and up is a possibility, I know there are a lot of forests there, and I might still do Canada since I'll actually know what I"m talking about *g*

Out of curiosity, do you just use pen and paper when you're organizing stuff? Or do you use some software etc? I am talking about once you have a list of things to happen in the story, how do you organize them so you don't forget how one leads into the other? If you have a list of let's say:

- broken leg
- attack of wild animals
- blizzard

Do you just rearrange this list or do you start to fill out the details (i.e. whose leg is broken?...where do they get attacked?) at this stage or later?
When I was doing the last challenge I ended up using post-it notes to keep track of plot as I moved the events around, and it was a tremendous help. I'm wondering if there's software out there that does something similar or if you are satisfied with a simple sheet of paper?

Thank you for all your help!
Re: wilderness survival stuff
Out of curiosity, do you just use pen and paper when you're organizing stuff? Or do you use some software etc?

Just pen and paper, or a regular document in the word processor. I do a lot of my rough brainstorming on paper (in a lined notebook), even though I don't really write stories that way anymore. That way I don't have to be at the computer; I can write down notes anywhere, or go off somewhere that I don't have the Internet and its million distractions. And it lets me scribble little maps. Rough, sketchy maps are something I use a lot when I'm keeping track of where everyone is. :D

But I really don't have any kind of organized system with any of this. It's different on everything I write, and there's not even really any pattern to what makes it different (like, I can't say for sure "This kind of story I do like this, and this kind I do this other way").

The most recent solid example I can give you is from "Black Water Rising" because I still have some of my notes and remember what the process was. At the start of the same document that has the fic in it, I have a list that goes like this:

Middle part:
- Jack loses his radio while climbing up to get a piece of angle iron from the wall, so they can't communicate with him anymore.
- Peggy sees the waterfall - it's at some kind of large bricked-in shaft w/grille near top
- Peggy notices that the concrete is extra crumbly at the hangar
- Peggy finds a paint pail and pry bar
- Peggy & Daniel try using the pail/bar combo to pry up the grate; it fails
- Peggy and/or Daniel turn the paint can lid into a tool for digging concrete out of the shaft
- Battery runs down on Daniel's flashlight
- Jack shows up (swimming), startling them; he actually managed to climb up & retrieve a length of angle iron. He passes it up through the grate to them. They try to pry up the grate w/that & fail.


Unfortunately I don't still have the stages that I went through in getting to this end stage, because it was WAY more vague in the beginning. I think what I started out with was just a list of possible things that could happen: "Someone's flashlight batteries run out", "Someone discovers crumbly concrete in wall", "They lose contact with Jack", etc. A few things were specific to one character, either because that was the only character it could happen to ("Jack drops radio in water & they lose touch") or because I already had an idea for how it was going to happen. I think I just had "Someone finds something useful" in the list a couple of times, and then figured out later what the "useful thing" was going to be. Then I started refining up the vague list items into specifics, and swapping things around to start getting an idea of when everything was going to happen relative to everything else.

Also, the list doesn't accurately reflect the finished shape of the fic: it's very Peggy-heavy (which actually makes it a bad example, because what I should have done if I actually followed my own process was balance the load among the other characters more, and I think what actually happened was I ended up doing that at the actual writing stage, figuring out how I went along what the other characters were doing so it wasn't all Peggy all the time).

But that DOES demonstrate how chaotic the process is. I guess the answer is that I would probably assign specific incidents to different characters if I either already had an idea for it, or wanted to make sure that I didn't end up giving everything to one person, and would leave anything I wasn't sure about to be filled in when I wrote. But that's just me -- I am a somewhat chaotic writer, and you might work differently.

I have also used Post-its and index cards to arrange plot items on some of my projects. :D It's a perfectly good method!

I know there's a piece of software called Scrivener that a lot of people like using to outline and edit projects, because it lets you have multiple windows open together. I've never tried it, though. I'm very old school with a lot of this stuff. :D
Re: wilderness survival stuff
Thank you! Very helpful, as usual.

I do use Scrivener myself for writing -- I started using it for this latest BigBang challenge and it was extremely useful. The functionality I used the most is where you can move the scenes around (because each scene is it's own file) and other organizational stuff like that. But it doesn't have a screen where you can see the entire plot (i.e. a wall with post-it notes), it's broken up into chapters, and that's why I was wondering. I do recommend you try Scrivener if you are interested, it's good, but it doesn't do 100% of stuff I want.

so it wasn't all Peggy all the time

Um, hey, it should be all Peggy all the time as far as I'm concerned! :P